Our client was rolling out project management systems, tools and processes across several hundred projects. Risk management was never formally done in projects, and consequently neither the clients nor management knew what impact the “known unknowns” would have on the project. Projects were often late or over budget and were missing profit targets. We worked with our client to introduce a basic risk planning and management mechanism into the proposal phase and the post-award planning phase. As a result, the client developed more realistic proposals that gave the client a stronger basis for negotiating. Project team morale improved because their assumptions about their estimates were more often accepted and integrated into project plans. And customers were happier with estimates and more trusting of project teams because they saw the depth of thinking and planning in projects.